Eva Tannenbaum-Cummins

Eva Tannenbaum-Cummins was born in Berlin, Germany in 1922. She was an only child. In March, 1933, when Hitler became the chancellor of Germany, Eva’s father came home early and explained that he had been fired from his job because he was Jewish. When Eva was in the 5th grade, her school principal called all the Jewish students in her school and explained that Nazi laws now required their expulsion...

Frieda Soury

In 1943, at the age of 14, Frieda was deported to Theresienstadt, a concentration camp in her native country of Czechoslovakia. Frieda was designated a “mischling,” meaning half-Jewish: Frieda’s mother was not Jewish, but her father was. Frieda was assigned to a room with more than 20 other girls. She remembers...

Henry Friedman

Henry Friedman was born in 1928 to a Jewish family in Brody, Poland. He recalls the discrimination he faced at the onset of the war when, at ten years old, a classmate told him to “wait until Hitler comes, he’ll take care of you!”...

Hester Kool

Born to a Jewish family in Amsterdam, Hester (Waas) Kool and her brother Isaac were raised by their parents in the small town of Zandvoort alongside the North Sea...

Klaus Stern

In 1942, Klaus was a young, newly married man in Berlin, Germany. With the rise of the Nazi party, Klaus began to feel increasingly ostracized, even among his childhood friends. On the 19th of April 1943, both Klaus and his wife Paula were deported to Auschwitz. Upon their arrival, they were separated and would remain...

Magda Schaloum

Magda Schaloum was born in 1922 in Gyor, Hungary. Following the German occupation of Hungary on March 19, 1944, the Nazis began systematically depriving Jews of their rights and forcing them into ghettos. They forced Magda and her family to leave their home and then deported her, her brother, and their mother to Auschwitz.

Peter Metzelaar

Peter was born in Amsterdam in 1935. In 1942, when Peter was only 7 years old, the Nazis seized his entire family, except for his mother Elli and him. The Dutch Underground contacted Klaus and Roefina Post on the Metzelaars’ behalf seeking a place of refuge. The Posts risked their lives to shelter Peter and his mother on...

Stephen Adler

Stephen (Steve) Adler was born in Berlin, Germany in 1930. He was the younger son in a middle-class, Jewish family. At age 7, he was forced to leave his neighborhood school and to enter a Jewish private school...

SS-headshotSusie Sherman

Susie Sherman was born Susanne Rindler on January 31, 1935 and spent her first few years in the small town near Karlsbad (now called Karlovy Vary), in Czechoslovakia...

Sephardic Memories of the Holocaust

Testimonies of Seattle survivors from Rhodes and Salonika.

Teaching Materials - Using Survivor Testimonies

1. Using Survivor Testimony - to create comics: a story in drawings.
By Lindsey Mutschler, Lake Washington Girls Middle School, Seattle.

See Sample Comic

2. Using Survivor Testimony - to teach about the Holocaust and to connect these lessons to today.
By Suzanne Bottelli, The Northwest School, Seattle.

3. Using Survivor Testimony - to understand resistance during the Holocaust.
By Carrie McCallum, St. Helens High School, St. Helens, OR.


Goals for using testimony in the classroom - Yad Vashem, International School for Holocaust Studies
Teaching With Testimony - By Stephen Smith, Director of the USC Shoah Foundation
Suggested websites
Additional handouts and lessons